Nabi Z, Reddy DN.
Gastroenterol Hepatol (NY) 2019 Jul;15(7):369-376.

Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal diseases in outpatient clinics. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the cornerstone of the treatment of GERD. However, approximately one-third of patients have suboptimal response to PPIs. The management options in such cases include antireflux surgery or endoscopic antireflux treatments. Antireflux surgery is not popular due to its invasive nature and potential for adverse events. Therefore, minimally invasive endoscopic antireflux therapies are gaining popularity for the management of PPI-dependent and PPI-refractory GERD. These endoscopic therapies include radiofrequency application, endoscopic fundoplication modalities, and mucosal resection techniques. In appropriately selected patients, the response to these endoscopic modalities is encouraging. Unlike surgical fundoplication, endoscopic antireflux therapies are less likely to be associated with complications such as dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. On the other hand, antireflux surgery remains the ideal treatment in patients with a large hiatal hernia (laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication), morbid obesity (gastric bypass), and severe reflux esophagitis. Endoscopic treatment modalities bear the potential to narrow the treatment gap between PPIs and antireflux surgery. Long-term follow-up studies and randomized comparison with antireflux surgery are required to provide a clear understanding of the current role of endoscopic modalities in patients with PPIrefractory and PPI-dependent GERD.

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