Bell RC, Hufford RJ, Fearon J, Freeman KD
Surg Endosc. 2013 Mar;27(3):761-7.


Laparoscopic revision of failed traditional fundoplication is difficult and involves risk of gastric, esophageal, and vagal nerve injury that is higher than that of the primary fundoplication. This study assessed feasibility and clinical outcomes of the transoral approach to revision of loose Nissen.


Between November 2009 and August 2011, a total of 11 patients underwent transoral repair as opposed to 70 patients who underwent laparoscopic or open revision of a failed fundoplication. Subjective and objective outcomes were evaluated with the GERD health-related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire and the reflux symptom index (RSI) questionnaire and ambulatory pH testing. The competency of the new antireflux barrier was evaluated by endoscopy. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and postoperative variables.


All 11 patients evidenced loosening of the Nissen fundoplication without evidence of hiatal failure. Mean age was 57 years, BMI was 25.1 kg/m(2), and 4 of 11 (36 %) were female. Indications for operation were abnormal pH-metry off PPIs (6), impedance/pH on PPIs (3), esophagitis (1), and evidence of free reflux on barium swallow (1). One patient developed a postoperative bleed requiring transfusion. Two patients had laparoscopic revision at 6 and 8 months after the transoral procedure. At a median follow-up of 14 (range = 6-28) months, 8/10 patients reported resolution of their primary symptoms. Eight patients had pH testing off PPIs both pre- and postoperatively; median % time with pH <4 improved by dropping from 8.1 % (21-4.8 %) to 0.6 % (13.4-0.01 %) (p = 0.008). Esophageal acid exposure normalized in 5/6 patients. Mean GERD-HRQL score improved significantly by dropping from 28.6 (10.6) preoperatively to 6.7 (6.1) post-TIF (p = 0.016). Mean RSI score improved more than 50 % in 5/7 patients.


Transoral revision of failed traditional fundoplication without herniation is technically feasible. It results in symptomatic and objective improvement of GERD without the risks of laparoscopic dissection for a majority of patients.

Link to open access article: Bell RCW, et al; Surg Endosc. 2013 Mar;27(3):761-7.

TIF procedure, Bell