Heidelbaugh JJ, Kim AH, Chang R, Walker PC
Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;5(4):219-32.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the leading evidence-based therapy for upper gastrointestinal disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia, and peptic ulcer disease. The effectiveness of PPIs has led to overutilization in multiple treatment arenas, exposing patients to an increasing number of potential risks. The overutilization of PPIs in ambulatory care settings is often a result of failure to re-evaluate the need for continuation of therapy, or insufficient use of on-demand and step-down therapy. PPI overutilization in the inpatient setting is often a result of inappropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in nonintensive care unit patients, and failure to discontinue SUP prior to hospital discharge. Potential consequences of prolonged PPI therapy include hypergastrinemia, enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and parietal cell hypertrophy, leading to rebound acid hypersecretion. PPIs have been linked via retrospective studies to increased risk of enteric infections including Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, community-acquired pneumonia, bone fracture, nutritional deficiencies, and interference with metabolism of antiplatelet agents. Reducing inappropriate prescribing of PPIs in the inpatient and outpatient settings can minimize potential for adverse events, and foster controllable cost expenditure.
Link to article on PMC: Heidelbaugh JJ, et al; Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;5(4):219-32.